I recently stumbled over this very old text. It is really just notes and musings, but thought it was interesting to see some of my earliest thoughts on the data integration problem. Presented as is.
Mechanical Symbol Systems
To what extent can knowledge be thought of as sentences in an internal language of thought?
Should knowledge by seen as an essentially biological, or essentially social, phenomenon?
Can a machine be said to have intentional states, or are all meanings of internal machine representations essentially rooted in human interpretations of them?
How can robots and humans share knowledge?
Can artificial reasoners act as vehicles for knowledge transfer between humans? (yes, they already are – see work on training systems)
Human Symbol Systems
Structures: Concepts, Facts and Process
Communication Among Individuals
The level of discourse among humans is very complex. Researchers in the natural language processing field would tell you that human discourse is very hard to capture in computer systems. Humans of course have no problem following the subject changes and shifting contexts of discourse.
Language is the means through which humans pass information to one another. Historically, verbal communication has been the primary means of conveying information. Through verbal communication, parents teach their children, conveying not just facts, but also concepts and world view. Through socialization, children learn the locally acceptable way in which to exist in the world. Through continual human contact, all persons reinforce their understanding of the world. Culture is a locally defined set of concepts, facts and processes.
One of the most important transmission devices for human communication is myth. Myth is story-telling, and therefore is largely verbal in nature.
Ritual also is used to communicate knowledge and reiterate beliefs among individuals. Ritual is performance, and can be used to teach process.
Information Systems Structures: Concepts, Facts and Process
The conceptual level of a standard information system may be stored in a database’s data dictionary. In some cases, the data dictionary is fairly simplistic, and may actually be hidden within the processes which maintain the database, inaccessible to outside review except by skilled programmers. More sophisticated data dictionaries, such as IBM’s Repository, and other CASE tools, make explicit the machine-level representation of the data contained in the system. The concepts stored in such devices are largely elementary, and idiosynchratic.
They are elementary in that a single concept in a data dictionary will generally refer to a small item of data called variously a “column” or a “field”. What is expressed by a single entry in a data dictionary is a mapping from an application-specific concept, for instance “PART_NUMBER”, to a machine-dependent, computable format (numeric, 12 decimal digits).
A “fact” in a database sense is a single instance or example of a data dictionary concept coupled with a single value.
Communication Across Information Systems, Custom Approaches
Information systems typically have no provision either to generate or understand discursive communication. Typically, information shared between two information systems must be rigidly defined long before transmission begins. This takes human intervention to define transmission carriers, as well as format, and periodicity.
The ISO OSI seven layers of communication was an initial attempt at defining the medium of computer communication. All computers which required communications services faced the same problems. Much of the work in networking today is geared toward building this ability to communicate. For humans, communication is through the various senses, taking advantage of the natural characteristics of the environment and the physical body. The majority of computers do not share the same senses.
Distributed systems are those in which all individual systems are connected via a network of transmission lines, and in which some level of pre-defined communication has been developed. The development of distributed database systems represents the first steps toward homogenation of mechanical symbol systems.
Electronic Data Interchange
EDI takes the communication process a step farther by introducing a rudimentary level of discourse among individual enterprises. Typically discourse is restricted to payments and orders of material, and typically these interchanges are just as static as earlier developments. The difference here is that human intervention is slowly developing a cultural definition of the information format and content that may be allowed to be transferred.
As standards are developed describing the exact nature and structure of the information that any company may submit or recieve, more of a culture of discourse can be recognized in the process overall. The discourse is of course carried out by humans at this point, as they define a syntax and semantics for the proper transmission of information in the domain of supply, payment, and delivery (commerce).
Although it is ridiculous to talk of an “EDI culture” as a machine-based, self-defining, self-reinforcing collection of symbols in its own right, it is a step in that direction. What EDI, and especially the development of standards for EDI transmissions, represents is an initial attempt to define societal-like communication among computers. In effect, EDI is extending the means of human discourse into the realm of high-speed transaction processing. The standards being developed for the format and type of transactions allowed represent a formalization and agreement among the society of business enterprises on the future language of commerce.
Raising Consciousness in Mechanical Symbol Systems
In order to partake of the richness and flexibility of human symbol systems, machines must be given control of their own senses. They must become aware of their environment. They must become aware of their own “bodies”. This is the mind-body problem.
mission lines, and in which some level of pre-defined communication has been developed. The development of distributed database systems represents the first steps toward homogenation of mechanical symbol systems.
Electronic Data Interchange
EDI takes the communication process a step farther by introducing a rudimentary level… (Author note: transcript cuts off right here)